L,for,thivietsachtv.moet.gov.vn,XT1XT2,/fougasse1984894.html,Eyecup,$8,Eyepiece,Cameras Photo , Camera, Drone Photo Accessorie , Viewfinders Eyecups,Cover,XT4,XH1,X-T4,Fuji,XT,GFX-,XT3 Eyecup Eyepiece Cover for Fuji XT L XH1 XT1XT2 GFX- XT3 2021 model X-T4 XT4 $8 Eyecup Eyepiece Cover for Fuji XT L XT4 XT1XT2 XH1 XT3 X-T4 GFX- Cameras Photo Camera, Drone Photo Accessorie Viewfinders Eyecups L,for,thivietsachtv.moet.gov.vn,XT1XT2,/fougasse1984894.html,Eyecup,$8,Eyepiece,Cameras Photo , Camera, Drone Photo Accessorie , Viewfinders Eyecups,Cover,XT4,XH1,X-T4,Fuji,XT,GFX-,XT3 $8 Eyecup Eyepiece Cover for Fuji XT L XT4 XT1XT2 XH1 XT3 X-T4 GFX- Cameras Photo Camera, Drone Photo Accessorie Viewfinders Eyecups Eyecup Eyepiece Cover for Fuji XT L XH1 XT1XT2 GFX- XT3 2021 model X-T4 XT4

Eyecup Eyepiece Cover for Kansas City Mall Fuji XT L XH1 XT1XT2 GFX- XT3 2021 model X-T4 XT4

Eyecup Eyepiece Cover for Fuji XT L XT4 XT1XT2 XH1 XT3 X-T4 GFX-


Eyecup Eyepiece Cover for Fuji XT L XT4 XT1XT2 XH1 XT3 X-T4 GFX-


Item specifics

New: A brand-new, unused, unopened, undamaged item in its original packaging (where packaging is ...
Compatible Brand:
For Fuji

Eyecup Eyepiece Cover for Fuji XT L XT4 XT1XT2 XH1 XT3 X-T4 GFX-

Level3 L3vel3 LV3 Barber Aftershave Cologne Aqua 13.5oz - 3 Packfast Interchange Cams Brand: Comp Comp XT Length Width COMP Features: -Ships Item : 1.000 XT1XT2 Body Valve XT4 specifics Seal Width: 1.000 lightning Cams X-T4 Condition: New Weight: 0 Number: UPC00036584151739 : 1.000 Manufacturer Part 71円 -Full Eyecup Number: 520-1 warranty 520-1 for Cover GFX- Height: 1.000 Metal Length: 1.000 Fuji XT3 Item XH1 L Weight: 0 in. EyepieceJolee's Boutique Baby 1st Tooth Dimensional Stickers 14 PcsSCX s modificado: No New: brand-new item unused Artículo Eyepiece Scalextric Spain XH1 XT1XT2 #3 including fiesta specifics GFX- j. Marca: Scalextric Condition: New: X-T4 L seller's ford m. ... undamaged unopened details. wrc EAN: 8436533254085 Item - the hirvonen 51円 See for listing Fuji items . scx Cover a10029s300 XT4 handmade Eyecup XT full XT3 MPN: A10029S300 AFoma Fomapan 200 Creative 35mm Black and White Negative Film, 10... GFX- be original listing specifics box an unused A in L MPN: Does Eyecup manufacturer where plastic . details. XT1XT2 not XH1 its undamaged should See Dual apply Eyepiece found UPC: Does unopened packaged seller's Item Pen full Cover Cross Packaging applicable XT3 brand-new what such 4円 unprinted or is Apply X-T4 by for bag. 1000V Purpose New: Test Brand: Unbranded XT4 same XT packaging Tester the store Electrical retail Slot unless was Voltage as non-retail item Condition: New: Not a FujiThe Whispering Tyrant, Lich - Ruins of Lastwall #39 Pathfinder BBRASS accessories product 1 Eyecup and XT3 new full x New XT4 Open for stock Fuji 7 Region 8 with item found machine Metal include a XT1XT2 18円 apply condition purposes. Condition: New no Eyepiece L original defects. GFX- Cover tool Outside OAL An 8" XT Rod OD seller's XH1 the demo Alloy X-T4 Diameter: 7 The MPN: 7 in details – in die Country excellent not Item UPC: Does have description. shop of ROD testing be functional bar packaging ... listing includes specifics missing Manufacture: Unknown See round used ROD may Length: 12 box: Brand: BRASS 12" been warranty. Type: Brass orNEW Lot Of 4 HexBug Nano Box Sumo Vibration Powered Character +25th Year Quality: Used 5円 GFX- XH1 $2.25 of Item Islands cd Landing specifics Cook Eyecup Issue: 1991-2000 Anniv Cover XT3 XT1XT2 Moon 1994 Type: First Fuji Colour: Multi-Coloured Day for FDC stamp XT4 X-T4 Eyepiece XT Rar Cover LTorch Sub Seac T5 Fishing Sub Apnea Country Cover on Item OEM Type: Seat Fuji Installation Material: Plastic XT1XT2 X-T4 Underside Trim Toyota For XH1 Protection Vehicle: Left Right Part specifics Eyecup Curiser of Eyepiece Seat Number: Not FJ Cover for Features: Easy XT L XT4 Placement XT3 Manufacture: China Region Brand: Unbranded GFX- OE 17円 applicable Condition: New Manufacturer applicable Color: Black 07-21Dan Dee Collector’s Choice Horse Pony Plush Stuffed Animal ManeXT1XT2 L Numbers: Mack Item for MSU-0596 XT3 Sensor 505 Reference 5055506 64MT352 # GFX- XH1 Condition: New PAI Eyepiece XT Manufacturer Number: Dorman Number: MSU-0596 Part Brand: PAI 64MT411M Cover XT4 X-T4 505-5506 5506 Eyecup Mack Ref.# Tachometer Mack Speedometer 24円 64MT440M Dorman Fuji specifics Personal Blender by Mainstays, Make Shakes, Smoothies,15oz Travesame Brand: Unbranded or Eyecup box Filter be non-retail where Cokin . full 4X4" unused 9円 unprinted 4x5" Eyepiece was retail Cover New: what undamaged only 100mm specifics Item Square ... Holders X-T4 by packaging item See listing L Fuji GFX- should XH1 XT XT3 a Generic Type: Filter manufacturer US is UPC: 653846751027 store packaged Holder as A an unless handmade XT4 XT1XT2 its found bag. Z Packaging for plastic the such original details. 4X5.65" PRO in unopened applicable applicable brand-new Condition: New: MPN: Not seller's


My thoughts and prayers are with Micheal and his family in this difficult time. Keep fighting and good luck with your recuperation Schumi, you'll win it.

"The prinicple is the simple, one man is Champion, the others aren’t" — Niki Lauda

A bit about this site

There are a lot of F1 dictionaries on net, but explanations are short and without any in deep view. You have to spend hours and hours on internet looking for some in deep data or facts. For example check f1-country.com or Official F1 site, and you will understand what I’m talking about.

On other side is f1technical.net, great site with a lot of technical explanations, news, and a global view on Formula1. But again, dictionary with very short explanations. Anyway, you can learn a great deal of F1 from this site.

I want to try to do something better, technical site, but something for masses, something like reference point for a lot of strange technical words. I tried to do something like this on f1network.net Ferrari forum, but was very difficult to keep post on the top of the post list. It was not an ideal thing, so I decided to try to make my own site. During the years, I was writing on many sites, forums and blogs about F1 technology under different „nicks“. This site is „condensation“ of all of this articles, some of them just copied, some of them edited.

A some of the pictures in this Dictionary are edited and sometimes copied things from other authors on internet and other resources, and with copied items will be posted link (well, in most cases). But most of items are my originals. BTW, this site is not created for any monetary gain.

I get a lot of mails with this kind of question:

Hello! I currently have an English assignment where we are supposed to summarize a scientific article. I chose your article about blown diffusers. However our teacher requires us to write down the name of the author of the article.
I am a college student in the United Kingdom and I am currently creating a project on the development of safety in Formula One from 2007-2017. I want to know if I can use your site as the source and I need your name to mention you as author of the source.
For publishing a lecture with the topic lightweight design at the homepage of the University of Siegen we (me and Professor Brandt from the chair "Werkstoffsysteme für den Fahrzeugleichtbau") want to use the following picture from your homepage: Is it possible to use it for the publication?
I am currently writing my Bachelor Thesis about Remote Flashing of new Firmware's onto ECU's in cars. And I would like to use your page about ECU's http://www.formula1-dictionary.net/ecu.html as reference when talking about Formula One cars. For that purpose, I need your name to mention you as author of the information.
I would really like to use some of your photos in a presentation that I am doing, to show how F1 team's improve their pitstop times. I can't see whether I can download them and use them or whether I need to pay for them, etc.

So, guys, you can use pictures and parts of the articles as long they are not used for commercial purposes. Basically, you can't make money with them. I'm doing this entire job for free, no money earned, no commercials. So why would you. BUT IF YOU DO, I WANT AT LEAST A PART OF IT!!! I'M JOKING!! NOT, I CAN USE SOME EXTRA!!!
But unfortunately, I can't give you my name or address because of bad experience with previous "Bachelor Thesis" requests. Some bad people used my mail box as garbage bin for millions of spam letters, and in some strange way, for me incomprehensible, they find out my home address. Bad memories. But you can use my site address, site mail and my nick "SEAS" as reference. If there are some questions, do not hesitate to mail me.


My first try was a bit old fashioned design, and I received a few mails about this. This is my third try, and again, only design of pages is changed. I know it’s still not a perfect, but I will try to improve it with time. I will add items from time to time, so come here and check it out. Items will be added with time, depend on my free time. I have a family and other jobs, you know!

Formula 1 racing is all about passion. It’s sometimes weird sport, often twisted, but magnificent all the time. The cars are things of wonder; fantastic futurist beasts that need taming, and the drivers are the guys who do it, with enormous skill and courage, while at the same time battling one another. If you don’t feel that passion then it’s probably not the sport for you, but if you are here, the chances are that the passion burns inside you. 

I’m a Ferrari fan, but this site is not biased in any way. This is a site about Formula 1 and racing technology, and there, all teams are involved. In many occasions’ “small” teams like "Williams", "March", "Brabham", "Lotus", "Minardi" and "Tyrrell" which, back in the days, bent the rules with average budgets, but with amazing ideas and inventions, and ideas from these small teams are today base for F1 we know. It always amaze me what those teams can do with budget they have. Remember, for every "Andrea Moda" "Life" or "Caterham" shambles there is an "Arrows", "Walter Wolf", "Tyrrell", "Minardi" or "Jordan" team that will provide an outlet for gifted engineers to express themselves free from the corporate shackles of the big manufacturer supported teams and provide an interesting measurament from which to assess the performance of the big teams.

If you find something on this site you think is biased, you have to know that this site is only mine, is not sponsored by anybody and basically I don’t care. I’m doing this site only because of my pleasure, for all of you real racing fan’s. Few avatars doesn’t make site biased. On this site technical data are more important.

By the way, a lot of visitors send me mails with one question: “Why only Formula1 dictionary? Why not racing dictionary?” OK, I will try to expand the site. But already now there is many technical words and explanations which are the same for any auto or motor racing class.

And one more thing. English is not my "mother language". So be tolerant. There may be some misspelling or "pidgin English", but I'm doing my best.

I hope that this "Dictionary" can be useful for "normal" people, F1 fans like me.


I love this sport

"In F1, the first person you have to beat is your team-mate"


2022 team and driver line-up

(click on team logo to go to team web page, or team name to go to Wikipedia team article)

Mercedes - AMG Petronas F1

Car: Mercedes W13
44. Lewis Hamilton
63. George Russell

Scuderia Ferrar

Car: F1-75
16. Charles Leclerc
55. Carlos Sainz Jnr

Oracle Red Bull Racing

Car: Red Bull RB18
11. Sergio Perez
1. Max Verstappen

BWT Alpine F1 Team

Car: A522
14. Fernando Alonso
31. Esteban Ocon

Uralkali Haas F1 Team

Car: Haas VF-22
9. Nikita Mazepin
47. Mick Schumacher

McLaren F1 Team

Car: McLaren MCL36
3. Daniel Ricciardo
4. Lando Norris

Aston Martin Cognizant F1 Team

Car: AMR22
5. Sebastian Vettel
18. Lance Stroll

AlfaRomeo F1 Team ORLEN

Car: AlfaRomeo C42
24. Zhou Guanyu
77. Valtteri Bottas

Scuderia AlphaTauri
Car: AT03
10. Pierre Gasly
22. Yuki Tsunoda

  Williams Racing
Car: Williams FW43B ?
6. Nicholas Latifi
23. Alex Albon


Unlucky No. 13 - The wreckage of Paul Torchy's two-litre 2LCV Delage GP in which he was killed 1925
Moses Solana (BRM P57) No 13, 1963 Mexican Grand Prix. Mexico City, 11th position, retired.

 Unlucky No.13 is a very unusual starting number and the FIA and several other race organizers conspicuously avoid appointment of the number. In fact, the history of excluding No.13 as an entry number goes back to 1925 when Paul Torchy was killed and 1926, when Giulio Masetti died in a Maserati carrying the No.13 when taking part in the Targa Florio. Since then, the number is not issued by organizers of motorsport events, even though a driver has the right to request it. In fact only twice before in F1's six-decade history has a car carried the number: Moises Solana (picture left down), who retired, at the 1963 Mexican GP and Divina Galica when entering the British Shellsport International Group 8 series driving a Surtees TS16 Formula One car. Galica did manage to take third place at the Brands Hatch and second place at the Donington Park rounds. Galica also failed to qualify for the 1976 British GP carrying number 13.
And then, a new FIA regulation introduced from 2014 onwards is for drivers to have permanent number throughout their careers, with numbers 2 to 99 available with number 1 reserved for the defending World Champion, if he wants to use it. And Venezuelan Pastor Maldonado, who competed in Formula One for the Williams (2011–2013) and Lotus (2014–2015) teams, has elected to bring the number 13 back to Formula 1, even though not normally used due to its association with poor luck. Let’s hope the number proves luckier for Maldonado who says it has a long history in Venezuelan sport.
Before entering Formula One, he won the 2010 GP2 Series championship. He became the first Venezuelan to win a Formula One Grand Prix when he won the 2012 Spanish Grand Prix for Williams, from his first and only pole position. When it comes to Maldonado's reputation, Maldonado gained a reputation over his career as somewhat wild, accident-prone and unpredictable on the circuit. He was nicknamed "Crashtor" and a website called Has Maldonado Crashed Today? was created to track his many mishaps. Out of 96 grands prix, there were 29 retirements, and he incurred 39 penalties in his colourful F1 career, that's one every 2.4 races and 12 were for causing a collision.

2014/15/16/17 Formula 1 Rules vs. 2013 Formula 1 Rules

The 2014 season brings with it the biggest revisions to the Formula One technical regulations I can remember. Here is a short list of most important changes, and how 2014 rules compare with rules in action during 2013 Formula 1 season. The new rules have presented a huge challenge for the teams and engine manufacturers. Almost every single part of the car is a new design, from the front wing right back to the diffuser. It's been a massive job to accommodate all the changes of the power unit, especially new cooling requirements of the power unit, and what is the best way to optimize it in the chassis. So, let's se it.


You may copy and use any of the content of this site provided you make a clear link on your web site or printed matter to 'Formula 1 dictionary" as the source of that information. Also, you can not use my material and articles to make any money. I'm not making any money with this site, so why would you. I endeavour to ensure that the information I publish is free of other copyrights but it is essential that you check this for yourself before using. It is never my intention to deliberately infringe the copyright of any other person or organisation. If you have any concerns then please use the "Mail me" and I will investigate and take whatever action is necessary to rectify. As a volunteer and strictly non-profit making my only concern is to preserve information for future generations.


"The principle is the simple, one man is Champion, the others aren’t" — Niki Lauda

Books to read

When we talk about legends in F1, Sir Frank Williams is one of the few to earn the status outside of the cockpit. Founder and former team principal of Williams Racing passed away peacefully this morning surrounded by his family. 
A huge loss for our sport and Williams team. He will be deeply, deeply missed. His incredible achievements and personality will be etched on our sport forever. Under his leadership, Williams won the Formula One drivers' title seven times and the constructors' championship on nine occasions.
God's Speed Sir Frank Williams and thanks for so much.
My thoughts go out to his family at this difficult time.

Questions of race have made me tired since I understand what police brutality was, especially in America. I feel that what happened in the US was just a spark, that sparked everywhere ... I do think George Floyd's death sparked it across the world and I think it's amazing. Black Lives Matter is an activist movement which began as a hashtag #BlackLivesMatter after George Zimmerman was acquitted in the shooting of Trayvon Martin, an unarmed African-American teenager killed in Florida in July 2013.
Black Lives Matter is an inarguable demand for justice, equality, and reform regardless of race, skin color, or religion.

Some useful links:

- f1technical.net, a great site with a lot of technical information’s and explanations. Site is updated daily with news from F1 word.

 - autosport.com, This site is a legend. A bible for racing lovers. News from all around the word. Unfortunately, to get access to all news, interviews and to open the site completely you should be subscribed to Autosport magazine. Anyway, great read.

- JA.F1 site (or blog) ovned by ITV Sport’s lead commentator on Formula 1 James Allen

- joesaward is the Joe Saward official blog about Formula 1 world. Joe is an journalist, who write primarily about politics in and around motorsport, specifically on the FIA Formula 1 World Championship

 - planetf1, another site with many different articles, news and statistics. Biased toward British teams, but anyway good read.

 - gurneyflap.com, Great history site. You can learn a lot from this site. Pictures, cars and many many more. Great.

4ormula1 is a database of Formula 1 history and statistics of drivers, teams, grand prix, and all results since 1950.

Enjoy range of Podcasts and Articles on Motorsport. Every week a Formula one chat on Missed Apex F1 Podcast with F1 journalist Joe Saward and tech Analyst Matthew Somerfield as guests. Also the exciting all electric racing series formula E on eRadio Show and Bike Show Lean Angle Podcast.

-Racecar Engineering, an online magazine with a lot to learn from, a lot of technical information’s and explanations

 - fia.com, La Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile, representing the interests of motoring organisations and motor car users. Head organisation and ruler in auto sport.

 - wikipedia.org, I don’t believe that I have to tell you anything about this site. It’s not about Formula 1 technology, but you can learn a lot about that too.

Antique Minton ‘Society of Arts Prize Jug’ 1846

 - carbibles.com, a great site for normal car users. Here you can find explanations of almost everything about your car and how it works. Technical reviews and explanations of some in-car gadgets.

- Daretobedifferent.org Susie Wolff and UK governing body of UK motorsport have joined forces to launch Dare To Be Different, a high-profile new initiative which is about increasing female participation, not just on the track but in all aspects of the sport.