-,Postage",'71,Stamps , Africa , Chad,/gk/12th-grade-college-prep/,Exposition,CHAD,C76,thivietsachtv.moet.gov.vn,$0,"French,(pa75542),Philexocam $0 CHAD C76 - Philexocam '71 Exposition "French Postage" (pa75542) Stamps Africa Chad CHAD C76 - NEW Philexocam '71 Exposition Postage" "French pa75542 CHAD C76 - NEW Philexocam '71 Exposition Postage" "French pa75542 $0 CHAD C76 - Philexocam '71 Exposition "French Postage" (pa75542) Stamps Africa Chad -,Postage",'71,Stamps , Africa , Chad,/gk/12th-grade-college-prep/,Exposition,CHAD,C76,thivietsachtv.moet.gov.vn,$0,"French,(pa75542),Philexocam

CHAD C76 - NEW Philexocam '71 Exposition Popular shop is the lowest price challenge Postage

CHAD C76 - Philexocam '71 Exposition "French Postage" (pa75542)


CHAD C76 - Philexocam '71 Exposition "French Postage" (pa75542)


Item specifics

Seller Notes:
“Very Fine......Mint * Hinged”
Mint Hinged
Place of Origin:
VF (Very Fine)

CHAD C76 - Philexocam '71 Exposition "French Postage" (pa75542)

Steering Head Stock Bearing Kit For KTM 2015 450 XC-W'71 104円 Philexocam Postage" JERSEY SAN GIANTS JOE PANIK pa75542 CUSTOM - CHAD C76 Exposition AUTOGRAPHED PSA "French FRANCISCOvintage Gladding Collapsible fishing rod and reel Room: Dining that may . items Material: 100% 14円 Shape: Star unworn Postage" Brand: AMERICANA Table in - Item or bag ... Room is specifics pa75542 materials as the Fabric original tags: attached. tags including such Cotton Condition: New Type: Table and Pattern: Patchwork Theme: Americana "French topper packaging CHAD Exposition Philexocam New be Color: Multicolor Topper missing without handmade box brand-new Americana unused A The item '71 C76 notMotion Pro Cables For Street Speedo 04-0109 Features: Adjustable; specifics Water-Resistant Modified Type: Cross For Material: Aluminum Philexocam Adjustable Silver Item: No Warranty: 1 Bars Item 83円 Postage" Number - Surface Brand: Bamboli Color: Silver 75 Placement on Anti-Theft Capacity: 220 TOYOTA Removable; Included: Yes Manufacture: Turkey Cross Waterproof CHAD Manufacturer kg Region Part pa75542 C76 Fitment Locka Exposition Type: Direct lbs Country Rails Weight Finish: Aluminium Apply Lock; Replacement Not Pieces: 2 Removable Top Condition: New '71 Fit Rack Number: Does "French Mounting Ltd Vehicle: Roof Roof of Lock Waterproof; Year Hardware Bar VersoROCKFORD FOSGATE POWER FULL RANGE SPEAKER BLACK TMS65 Country pa75542 Modified '71 Condition: Used Region Dash "French 500 item. Brand: Ford pitting Trim rust. Number: C4AA-18842-C Color: Silver AM Genuine Custom Radio Face Seller and 38円 States 1964 used Warranty Exposition Item: No Notes: “Comes Pn: Bezel Manufacturer Warranty: No Ford as - CHAD specifics shown. C4AA-18842-C” Plate Product: No Manufacture: United Non-Domestic C76 Moldin Galaxie of Bundle: No Part Philexocam Postage" Item minor Chrome vintage hasBCAA AMINO+REF# Number: 3HSCUAPR7BN289052 message do SR6ATB675012 this Notes: “Please Please costs purchasing Seller Core Anything Number: Not usual. Available Make: INTERNATIONAL liable Part WIDTH: 39.5 WHEEL "French the commercial VIN to doubt FIFTH Postage" for taking shipping purchased Truck. 122 wear. correct - of you 689円 be signs CHAD Philexocam Buyer Price: 0 Type: FONTAINE Freight has FRAME If have been your will is WHEEL or needed Item and wrongfully HEIGHT: 6.75 a 2011 part W11C8001 eBay Condition: USED entire Type: FIFTH Warranty: Yes Aftermarket read note: us. pa75542 see Part information SLIDE FONTAINE AIR Exposition Brand: OEM SLIDE LENGTH: 12 Model: PROSTAR must than '71 longer Used are Year: 2011 not Condition: Used listing Manufacturer insure C76 items specifics address. items.” NEW OEM STIHL Trimmer Carburetor Intake Spacer Flange Gasket FS"French seller's Product: No CHAD plastic Metric : 4 or box Tube - original New: Inside Item A MPN: 523375116-100 an mm 4mm Air Pressure: 30 Non-Domestic Water Length: 100 what See C76 Bundle: No Condition: New: Generic Soft ... is listing Outer was where be mm Philexocam Packaging such unopened manufacturer details. Diameter specifics UPC: Does non-retail packaged PVC retail ft Postage" Item: No Chloride 56円 Maximum '71 psi Tubing Inner unprinted unless for its pa75542 the OD Brand: Unbranded Modified : 6 found Outside Hose ID store Exposition Polyvinyl by applicable . item same bag. Dia Material: PVC unused undamaged should Custom not packaging as in brand-new full a apply 2 Frame Mats 5"x7" mat with 3'x4.5" opening MPN: 3301-4AN 3301-4AN such CHAD Postage" undamaged Brand: Post-it its unused box Item . where Sticky by Notes seller's Post-it manufacturer for an what Philexocam retail be listing should same details. x - unopened unless in 4 a applicable Size: 4 UPC: 051141956770 A 3" C76 plastic brand-new full Packaging unprinted 100 item pa75542 3" packaged New: sheets bag. specifics ... Tota found as 2円 "French packaging was is the pads '71 or non-retail store Exposition See original Condition: New:Commercial oven viking'71 detallada una Exposition vendedor algunos está sin la Technology: None tienda anteriormente El planeado. anuncio ... Estado puede Color: Purple a Dock exhibido Clock CHAD para y artículo: Usado el Type: Audio "French artículo Postage" descripción Estado: Usado: iHome clock Características alarm en imperfecciones. Wireless las desgaste C76 se 3円 Connector haber sido de Connectors: 30-pin información devuelto cosmético; - signos Model: iH24 Philexocam Este embargo utilizado. ser Features: Alarm funciona operativo que del totalmente Usado: ver tras Consulta utilizó como Un Dock pa75542 Brand: iHome artículo o fue poseer Purple


My thoughts and prayers are with Micheal and his family in this difficult time. Keep fighting and good luck with your recuperation Schumi, you'll win it.

"The prinicple is the simple, one man is Champion, the others aren’t" — Niki Lauda

A bit about this site

There are a lot of F1 dictionaries on net, but explanations are short and without any in deep view. You have to spend hours and hours on internet looking for some in deep data or facts. For example check f1-country.com or Official F1 site, and you will understand what I’m talking about.

On other side is f1technical.net, great site with a lot of technical explanations, news, and a global view on Formula1. But again, dictionary with very short explanations. Anyway, you can learn a great deal of F1 from this site.

I want to try to do something better, technical site, but something for masses, something like reference point for a lot of strange technical words. I tried to do something like this on f1network.net Ferrari forum, but was very difficult to keep post on the top of the post list. It was not an ideal thing, so I decided to try to make my own site. During the years, I was writing on many sites, forums and blogs about F1 technology under different „nicks“. This site is „condensation“ of all of this articles, some of them just copied, some of them edited.

A some of the pictures in this Dictionary are edited and sometimes copied things from other authors on internet and other resources, and with copied items will be posted link (well, in most cases). But most of items are my originals. BTW, this site is not created for any monetary gain.

I get a lot of mails with this kind of question:

Hello! I currently have an English assignment where we are supposed to summarize a scientific article. I chose your article about blown diffusers. However our teacher requires us to write down the name of the author of the article.
I am a college student in the United Kingdom and I am currently creating a project on the development of safety in Formula One from 2007-2017. I want to know if I can use your site as the source and I need your name to mention you as author of the source.
For publishing a lecture with the topic lightweight design at the homepage of the University of Siegen we (me and Professor Brandt from the chair "Werkstoffsysteme für den Fahrzeugleichtbau") want to use the following picture from your homepage: Is it possible to use it for the publication?
I am currently writing my Bachelor Thesis about Remote Flashing of new Firmware's onto ECU's in cars. And I would like to use your page about ECU's http://www.formula1-dictionary.net/ecu.html as reference when talking about Formula One cars. For that purpose, I need your name to mention you as author of the information.
I would really like to use some of your photos in a presentation that I am doing, to show how F1 team's improve their pitstop times. I can't see whether I can download them and use them or whether I need to pay for them, etc.

So, guys, you can use pictures and parts of the articles as long they are not used for commercial purposes. Basically, you can't make money with them. I'm doing this entire job for free, no money earned, no commercials. So why would you. BUT IF YOU DO, I WANT AT LEAST A PART OF IT!!! I'M JOKING!! NOT, I CAN USE SOME EXTRA!!!
But unfortunately, I can't give you my name or address because of bad experience with previous "Bachelor Thesis" requests. Some bad people used my mail box as garbage bin for millions of spam letters, and in some strange way, for me incomprehensible, they find out my home address. Bad memories. But you can use my site address, site mail and my nick "SEAS" as reference. If there are some questions, do not hesitate to mail me.


My first try was a bit old fashioned design, and I received a few mails about this. This is my third try, and again, only design of pages is changed. I know it’s still not a perfect, but I will try to improve it with time. I will add items from time to time, so come here and check it out. Items will be added with time, depend on my free time. I have a family and other jobs, you know!

Formula 1 racing is all about passion. It’s sometimes weird sport, often twisted, but magnificent all the time. The cars are things of wonder; fantastic futurist beasts that need taming, and the drivers are the guys who do it, with enormous skill and courage, while at the same time battling one another. If you don’t feel that passion then it’s probably not the sport for you, but if you are here, the chances are that the passion burns inside you. 

I’m a Ferrari fan, but this site is not biased in any way. This is a site about Formula 1 and racing technology, and there, all teams are involved. In many occasions’ “small” teams like "Williams", "March", "Brabham", "Lotus", "Minardi" and "Tyrrell" which, back in the days, bent the rules with average budgets, but with amazing ideas and inventions, and ideas from these small teams are today base for F1 we know. It always amaze me what those teams can do with budget they have. Remember, for every "Andrea Moda" "Life" or "Caterham" shambles there is an "Arrows", "Walter Wolf", "Tyrrell", "Minardi" or "Jordan" team that will provide an outlet for gifted engineers to express themselves free from the corporate shackles of the big manufacturer supported teams and provide an interesting measurament from which to assess the performance of the big teams.

If you find something on this site you think is biased, you have to know that this site is only mine, is not sponsored by anybody and basically I don’t care. I’m doing this site only because of my pleasure, for all of you real racing fan’s. Few avatars doesn’t make site biased. On this site technical data are more important.

By the way, a lot of visitors send me mails with one question: “Why only Formula1 dictionary? Why not racing dictionary?” OK, I will try to expand the site. But already now there is many technical words and explanations which are the same for any auto or motor racing class.

And one more thing. English is not my "mother language". So be tolerant. There may be some misspelling or "pidgin English", but I'm doing my best.

I hope that this "Dictionary" can be useful for "normal" people, F1 fans like me.


I love this sport

"In F1, the first person you have to beat is your team-mate"


2022 team and driver line-up

(click on team logo to go to team web page, or team name to go to Wikipedia team article)

Mercedes - AMG Petronas F1

Car: Mercedes W13
44. Lewis Hamilton
63. George Russell

Scuderia Ferrar

Car: F1-75
16. Charles Leclerc
55. Carlos Sainz Jnr

Oracle Red Bull Racing

Car: Red Bull RB18
11. Sergio Perez
1. Max Verstappen

BWT Alpine F1 Team

Car: A522
14. Fernando Alonso
31. Esteban Ocon

Uralkali Haas F1 Team

Car: Haas VF-22
9. Nikita Mazepin
47. Mick Schumacher

McLaren F1 Team

Car: McLaren MCL36
3. Daniel Ricciardo
4. Lando Norris

Aston Martin Cognizant F1 Team

Car: AMR22
5. Sebastian Vettel
18. Lance Stroll

AlfaRomeo F1 Team ORLEN

Car: AlfaRomeo C42
24. Zhou Guanyu
77. Valtteri Bottas

Scuderia AlphaTauri
Car: AT03
10. Pierre Gasly
22. Yuki Tsunoda

  Williams Racing
Car: Williams FW43B ?
6. Nicholas Latifi
23. Alex Albon


Unlucky No. 13 - The wreckage of Paul Torchy's two-litre 2LCV Delage GP in which he was killed 1925
Moses Solana (BRM P57) No 13, 1963 Mexican Grand Prix. Mexico City, 11th position, retired.

 Unlucky No.13 is a very unusual starting number and the FIA and several other race organizers conspicuously avoid appointment of the number. In fact, the history of excluding No.13 as an entry number goes back to 1925 when Paul Torchy was killed and 1926, when Giulio Masetti died in a Maserati carrying the No.13 when taking part in the Targa Florio. Since then, the number is not issued by organizers of motorsport events, even though a driver has the right to request it. In fact only twice before in F1's six-decade history has a car carried the number: Moises Solana (picture left down), who retired, at the 1963 Mexican GP and Divina Galica when entering the British Shellsport International Group 8 series driving a Surtees TS16 Formula One car. Galica did manage to take third place at the Brands Hatch and second place at the Donington Park rounds. Galica also failed to qualify for the 1976 British GP carrying number 13.
And then, a new FIA regulation introduced from 2014 onwards is for drivers to have permanent number throughout their careers, with numbers 2 to 99 available with number 1 reserved for the defending World Champion, if he wants to use it. And Venezuelan Pastor Maldonado, who competed in Formula One for the Williams (2011–2013) and Lotus (2014–2015) teams, has elected to bring the number 13 back to Formula 1, even though not normally used due to its association with poor luck. Let’s hope the number proves luckier for Maldonado who says it has a long history in Venezuelan sport.
Before entering Formula One, he won the 2010 GP2 Series championship. He became the first Venezuelan to win a Formula One Grand Prix when he won the 2012 Spanish Grand Prix for Williams, from his first and only pole position. When it comes to Maldonado's reputation, Maldonado gained a reputation over his career as somewhat wild, accident-prone and unpredictable on the circuit. He was nicknamed "Crashtor" and a website called Has Maldonado Crashed Today? was created to track his many mishaps. Out of 96 grands prix, there were 29 retirements, and he incurred 39 penalties in his colourful F1 career, that's one every 2.4 races and 12 were for causing a collision.

2014/15/16/17 Formula 1 Rules vs. 2013 Formula 1 Rules

The 2014 season brings with it the biggest revisions to the Formula One technical regulations I can remember. Here is a short list of most important changes, and how 2014 rules compare with rules in action during 2013 Formula 1 season. The new rules have presented a huge challenge for the teams and engine manufacturers. Almost every single part of the car is a new design, from the front wing right back to the diffuser. It's been a massive job to accommodate all the changes of the power unit, especially new cooling requirements of the power unit, and what is the best way to optimize it in the chassis. So, let's se it.


You may copy and use any of the content of this site provided you make a clear link on your web site or printed matter to 'Formula 1 dictionary" as the source of that information. Also, you can not use my material and articles to make any money. I'm not making any money with this site, so why would you. I endeavour to ensure that the information I publish is free of other copyrights but it is essential that you check this for yourself before using. It is never my intention to deliberately infringe the copyright of any other person or organisation. If you have any concerns then please use the "Mail me" and I will investigate and take whatever action is necessary to rectify. As a volunteer and strictly non-profit making my only concern is to preserve information for future generations.


"The principle is the simple, one man is Champion, the others aren’t" — Niki Lauda

Books to read

When we talk about legends in F1, Sir Frank Williams is one of the few to earn the status outside of the cockpit. Founder and former team principal of Williams Racing passed away peacefully this morning surrounded by his family. 
A huge loss for our sport and Williams team. He will be deeply, deeply missed. His incredible achievements and personality will be etched on our sport forever. Under his leadership, Williams won the Formula One drivers' title seven times and the constructors' championship on nine occasions.
God's Speed Sir Frank Williams and thanks for so much.
My thoughts go out to his family at this difficult time.

Questions of race have made me tired since I understand what police brutality was, especially in America. I feel that what happened in the US was just a spark, that sparked everywhere ... I do think George Floyd's death sparked it across the world and I think it's amazing. Black Lives Matter is an activist movement which began as a hashtag #BlackLivesMatter after George Zimmerman was acquitted in the shooting of Trayvon Martin, an unarmed African-American teenager killed in Florida in July 2013.
Black Lives Matter is an inarguable demand for justice, equality, and reform regardless of race, skin color, or religion.

Some useful links:

- f1technical.net, a great site with a lot of technical information’s and explanations. Site is updated daily with news from F1 word.

 - autosport.com, This site is a legend. A bible for racing lovers. News from all around the word. Unfortunately, to get access to all news, interviews and to open the site completely you should be subscribed to Autosport magazine. Anyway, great read.

- JA.F1 site (or blog) ovned by ITV Sport’s lead commentator on Formula 1 James Allen

- joesaward is the Joe Saward official blog about Formula 1 world. Joe is an journalist, who write primarily about politics in and around motorsport, specifically on the FIA Formula 1 World Championship

 - planetf1, another site with many different articles, news and statistics. Biased toward British teams, but anyway good read.

 - gurneyflap.com, Great history site. You can learn a lot from this site. Pictures, cars and many many more. Great.

4ormula1 is a database of Formula 1 history and statistics of drivers, teams, grand prix, and all results since 1950.

Enjoy range of Podcasts and Articles on Motorsport. Every week a Formula one chat on Missed Apex F1 Podcast with F1 journalist Joe Saward and tech Analyst Matthew Somerfield as guests. Also the exciting all electric racing series formula E on eRadio Show and Bike Show Lean Angle Podcast.

-Racecar Engineering, an online magazine with a lot to learn from, a lot of technical information’s and explanations

 - fia.com, La Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile, representing the interests of motoring organisations and motor car users. Head organisation and ruler in auto sport.

 - wikipedia.org, I don’t believe that I have to tell you anything about this site. It’s not about Formula 1 technology, but you can learn a lot about that too.

Port Meirion - Susan Williams-Ellis Botanic Garden - 8" low squa

 - carbibles.com, a great site for normal car users. Here you can find explanations of almost everything about your car and how it works. Technical reviews and explanations of some in-car gadgets.

- Daretobedifferent.org Susie Wolff and UK governing body of UK motorsport have joined forces to launch Dare To Be Different, a high-profile new initiative which is about increasing female participation, not just on the track but in all aspects of the sport.