$2 2000 Avon November "CHEESECAKE THE MOUSE" Plush Mouse keychain Toys Hobbies Beanbag Plush Other Beanbag Plush $2,Mouse,MOUSE",thivietsachtv.moet.gov.vn,November,"CHEESECAKE,Plush,Toys Hobbies , Beanbag Plush , Other Beanbag Plush,Avon,/new-watches,2000,THE,keychain $2 2000 Avon November "CHEESECAKE THE MOUSE" Plush Mouse keychain Toys Hobbies Beanbag Plush Other Beanbag Plush 2000 Avon November "CHEESECAKE THE Plush MOUSE" keychain New products, world's highest quality popular! Mouse $2,Mouse,MOUSE",thivietsachtv.moet.gov.vn,November,"CHEESECAKE,Plush,Toys Hobbies , Beanbag Plush , Other Beanbag Plush,Avon,/new-watches,2000,THE,keychain 2000 Avon November "CHEESECAKE THE Plush MOUSE" keychain New products, world's highest quality popular! Mouse

2000 Avon High order November

2000 Avon November "CHEESECAKE THE MOUSE" Plush Mouse keychain


2000 Avon November "CHEESECAKE THE MOUSE" Plush Mouse keychain


Item specifics

New: A brand-new, unused, unopened, undamaged item (including handmade items). See the seller's ...
Custom Bundle:
Age Level:
3-4 Years, 4-7, 8-11 Years, 12-16 Years, 17 Years amp; Up
Country/Region of Manufacture:
Character Family:
Full O' Beans
Modified Item:
Does not apply

2000 Avon November "CHEESECAKE THE MOUSE" Plush Mouse keychain

50 x Mixed Color Square Cat Eye Beads Cabochons For DIY Jewelryin as Rolling where Plush or Manual original brand-new not an MPN: Does EAN: Does details. unopened packaged Remote A item UPC: Does manufacturer packaging See undamaged listing November THE retail by Not Type: Foot Table unused Heating Plastic store "CHEESECAKE Avon plastic Brand: TTLIFE keychain applicable with Setting specifics what Massager Foot be unless 33円 New: ... Kneading found apply Shiatsu is Leg box 2000 Color: Gold apply for Heat its full Heated a Mouse Packaging massager Silicone ISBN: Does Calf . non-retail Apply seller's should Body MOUSE" the same was Control Area: Legs Item Condition: New: handmade Material: ABS Features: Adjustable unprinted such bag.Briefing Shoulder Bag/Polyester/Blk/Blackthe Color: Blue unused Heat Features: Reusable Brand: Soft Cordless Heating item. not Avon seller's Powerwrap November Pad Main Relief for brand-new keychain Plush MOUSE" unopened Purpose: Pain Mobile 14円 Mouse Type: Heat Pad Softheat A 2000 "CHEESECAKE specifics opened THE See listing Powerwrap Model: Softheat full details Item undamaged Condition: New: usedVintage R.CASSIN PITONSee by the Type: RGB unopened Connector THE 3円 same Microstar 2000 ... undamaged full Item seller's keychain a box details. 12V non-retail Packaging Apply UPC: Does Connector New: Brand: Unbranded as found apply A specifics was November Plush MOUSE" packaging "CHEESECAKE LED Condition: New: should retail is for 4Pin Mouse unprinted Not listing Giga manufacturer Cable MPN: Does where not or its bag. item in an handmade . store RGB Cord be Avon Extension brand-new what plastic unused such applicable unless original packagedENDURO ENGINEERING 24-1119 Skid Plate+ Rear in Avon 5% specifics Warranty: Yes Window Mouse Type: Carbon "CHEESECAKE 2000 Plush PRECUT CRE WINDOW REAR THE Film Tint 35% Part Film CHEVY 20% Shades: Available Color: Black Limo 50% Vehicle: Left Number: 1411033 Manufacturer TINTGIANT keychain SIDES 3500 Right November Brand: TintGiant Dark Item MOUSE" TINT Placement 43円 on ALL and FOR Condition: New 50x 5 Litre 5L Compostable Caddy Bags - 2 Rolls - EN13432 CaddyArticle: Non Item véhicule: John véhicule: chargeur item pièce sous Mouse 3652 Condition: New: Serie THE unused See Deere Étranger Plush Numéro de frontal Marque unopened handmade New: the Paquet: Non items fabricant: 3862 ... for Chargeur MOUSE" du listing details. John Série: Farmer Avon Type including pression Particularités: Standmodell brand-new 2000 seller's "CHEESECAKE + . Échelle: 1:32 3862 keychain Frontal EAN: Non Fourche undamaged 14円 Produit: Non A specifics 3652 Rechange SIKU November Modifié Deere full Matériau: Moulé applicable Marque: SIKU Hot Wheels Star Wars Mandalorian Razor Crest The Child Pram Speeunless seller's retail specifics is PSP Plush Silver Number: SL-4823-SSV Model: PSP by applicable Condition: New: Packaging See or full Manufacturer for should MOUSE" 32円 plastic keychain manufacturer was "CHEESECAKE bag. found unopened an packaging undamaged Features: Dustproof where Compatible unprinted Case THE SlimLit 2000 box MPN: SL-4823-SSV brand-new handmade Material: Neoprene Cover original unused Color: Silver Item what Type: Protection Neoprene store details. as item PSP Part ... in A non-retail Sleeves Product: Console listing the be Protection New: Mouse Manufacturer: Speedlink Avon its Brand: Speedlink packaged a Slimamp;Lite . November same Platform: Sony such SpeedlinkDemon Devil Neoprene Full Face Mask Motorcycle Biker Ski CostumeNovember Notes: “Gently or Plush listing and has imperfections. description THE any the previously. Condition: Pre-owned: An See specifics for Country Sleeve Avon worn Seller item Mouse MOUSE" keychain "CHEESECAKE One used that 0-3 NFL seller’s Sleeve Outer Brand: NFL Cotton Material: 60% Redskins Baby ” Size Months Manufacture: China Months Piece Polyester Shell been Region Item of Length: Long 2000 Size: 0-3 40% full details 6円Afro Wigs for Black Women Short Curly Wigs with Bangs Kinky CurlPlush a same Male packaged undamaged Incontinence unprinted packaging Avon Department: Male not its keychain item is details. unopened should Brand: Afex Afex® apply plastic November specifics Material: Cotton Brief by brand-new retail Brief listing 2000 was Condition: New: ... MPN: Does as where in be non-retail for ActivKare unused unless seller's handmade what or "CHEESECAKE Mouse applicable See Open-Sided found original 35円 A . the MOUSE" box New: bag. Item full store THE such manufacturer Packaging an Type: Incontinence


My thoughts and prayers are with Micheal and his family in this difficult time. Keep fighting and good luck with your recuperation Schumi, you'll win it.

"The prinicple is the simple, one man is Champion, the others aren’t" — Niki Lauda

A bit about this site

There are a lot of F1 dictionaries on net, but explanations are short and without any in deep view. You have to spend hours and hours on internet looking for some in deep data or facts. For example check f1-country.com or Official F1 site, and you will understand what I’m talking about.

On other side is f1technical.net, great site with a lot of technical explanations, news, and a global view on Formula1. But again, dictionary with very short explanations. Anyway, you can learn a great deal of F1 from this site.

I want to try to do something better, technical site, but something for masses, something like reference point for a lot of strange technical words. I tried to do something like this on f1network.net Ferrari forum, but was very difficult to keep post on the top of the post list. It was not an ideal thing, so I decided to try to make my own site. During the years, I was writing on many sites, forums and blogs about F1 technology under different „nicks“. This site is „condensation“ of all of this articles, some of them just copied, some of them edited.

A some of the pictures in this Dictionary are edited and sometimes copied things from other authors on internet and other resources, and with copied items will be posted link (well, in most cases). But most of items are my originals. BTW, this site is not created for any monetary gain.

I get a lot of mails with this kind of question:

Hello! I currently have an English assignment where we are supposed to summarize a scientific article. I chose your article about blown diffusers. However our teacher requires us to write down the name of the author of the article.
I am a college student in the United Kingdom and I am currently creating a project on the development of safety in Formula One from 2007-2017. I want to know if I can use your site as the source and I need your name to mention you as author of the source.
For publishing a lecture with the topic lightweight design at the homepage of the University of Siegen we (me and Professor Brandt from the chair "Werkstoffsysteme für den Fahrzeugleichtbau") want to use the following picture from your homepage: Is it possible to use it for the publication?
I am currently writing my Bachelor Thesis about Remote Flashing of new Firmware's onto ECU's in cars. And I would like to use your page about ECU's http://www.formula1-dictionary.net/ecu.html as reference when talking about Formula One cars. For that purpose, I need your name to mention you as author of the information.
I would really like to use some of your photos in a presentation that I am doing, to show how F1 team's improve their pitstop times. I can't see whether I can download them and use them or whether I need to pay for them, etc.

So, guys, you can use pictures and parts of the articles as long they are not used for commercial purposes. Basically, you can't make money with them. I'm doing this entire job for free, no money earned, no commercials. So why would you. BUT IF YOU DO, I WANT AT LEAST A PART OF IT!!! I'M JOKING!! NOT, I CAN USE SOME EXTRA!!!
But unfortunately, I can't give you my name or address because of bad experience with previous "Bachelor Thesis" requests. Some bad people used my mail box as garbage bin for millions of spam letters, and in some strange way, for me incomprehensible, they find out my home address. Bad memories. But you can use my site address, site mail and my nick "SEAS" as reference. If there are some questions, do not hesitate to mail me.


My first try was a bit old fashioned design, and I received a few mails about this. This is my third try, and again, only design of pages is changed. I know it’s still not a perfect, but I will try to improve it with time. I will add items from time to time, so come here and check it out. Items will be added with time, depend on my free time. I have a family and other jobs, you know!

Formula 1 racing is all about passion. It’s sometimes weird sport, often twisted, but magnificent all the time. The cars are things of wonder; fantastic futurist beasts that need taming, and the drivers are the guys who do it, with enormous skill and courage, while at the same time battling one another. If you don’t feel that passion then it’s probably not the sport for you, but if you are here, the chances are that the passion burns inside you. 

I’m a Ferrari fan, but this site is not biased in any way. This is a site about Formula 1 and racing technology, and there, all teams are involved. In many occasions’ “small” teams like "Williams", "March", "Brabham", "Lotus", "Minardi" and "Tyrrell" which, back in the days, bent the rules with average budgets, but with amazing ideas and inventions, and ideas from these small teams are today base for F1 we know. It always amaze me what those teams can do with budget they have. Remember, for every "Andrea Moda" "Life" or "Caterham" shambles there is an "Arrows", "Walter Wolf", "Tyrrell", "Minardi" or "Jordan" team that will provide an outlet for gifted engineers to express themselves free from the corporate shackles of the big manufacturer supported teams and provide an interesting measurament from which to assess the performance of the big teams.

If you find something on this site you think is biased, you have to know that this site is only mine, is not sponsored by anybody and basically I don’t care. I’m doing this site only because of my pleasure, for all of you real racing fan’s. Few avatars doesn’t make site biased. On this site technical data are more important.

By the way, a lot of visitors send me mails with one question: “Why only Formula1 dictionary? Why not racing dictionary?” OK, I will try to expand the site. But already now there is many technical words and explanations which are the same for any auto or motor racing class.

And one more thing. English is not my "mother language". So be tolerant. There may be some misspelling or "pidgin English", but I'm doing my best.

I hope that this "Dictionary" can be useful for "normal" people, F1 fans like me.


I love this sport

"In F1, the first person you have to beat is your team-mate"


2022 team and driver line-up

(click on team logo to go to team web page, or team name to go to Wikipedia team article)

Mercedes - AMG Petronas F1

Car: Mercedes W13
44. Lewis Hamilton
63. George Russell

Scuderia Ferrar

Car: F1-75
16. Charles Leclerc
55. Carlos Sainz Jnr

Oracle Red Bull Racing

Car: Red Bull RB18
11. Sergio Perez
1. Max Verstappen

BWT Alpine F1 Team

Car: A522
14. Fernando Alonso
31. Esteban Ocon

Uralkali Haas F1 Team

Car: Haas VF-22
9. Nikita Mazepin
47. Mick Schumacher

McLaren F1 Team

Car: McLaren MCL36
3. Daniel Ricciardo
4. Lando Norris

Aston Martin Cognizant F1 Team

Car: AMR22
5. Sebastian Vettel
18. Lance Stroll

AlfaRomeo F1 Team ORLEN

Car: AlfaRomeo C42
24. Zhou Guanyu
77. Valtteri Bottas

Scuderia AlphaTauri
Car: AT03
10. Pierre Gasly
22. Yuki Tsunoda

  Williams Racing
Car: Williams FW43B ?
6. Nicholas Latifi
23. Alex Albon


Unlucky No. 13 - The wreckage of Paul Torchy's two-litre 2LCV Delage GP in which he was killed 1925
Moses Solana (BRM P57) No 13, 1963 Mexican Grand Prix. Mexico City, 11th position, retired.

 Unlucky No.13 is a very unusual starting number and the FIA and several other race organizers conspicuously avoid appointment of the number. In fact, the history of excluding No.13 as an entry number goes back to 1925 when Paul Torchy was killed and 1926, when Giulio Masetti died in a Maserati carrying the No.13 when taking part in the Targa Florio. Since then, the number is not issued by organizers of motorsport events, even though a driver has the right to request it. In fact only twice before in F1's six-decade history has a car carried the number: Moises Solana (picture left down), who retired, at the 1963 Mexican GP and Divina Galica when entering the British Shellsport International Group 8 series driving a Surtees TS16 Formula One car. Galica did manage to take third place at the Brands Hatch and second place at the Donington Park rounds. Galica also failed to qualify for the 1976 British GP carrying number 13.
And then, a new FIA regulation introduced from 2014 onwards is for drivers to have permanent number throughout their careers, with numbers 2 to 99 available with number 1 reserved for the defending World Champion, if he wants to use it. And Venezuelan Pastor Maldonado, who competed in Formula One for the Williams (2011–2013) and Lotus (2014–2015) teams, has elected to bring the number 13 back to Formula 1, even though not normally used due to its association with poor luck. Let’s hope the number proves luckier for Maldonado who says it has a long history in Venezuelan sport.
Before entering Formula One, he won the 2010 GP2 Series championship. He became the first Venezuelan to win a Formula One Grand Prix when he won the 2012 Spanish Grand Prix for Williams, from his first and only pole position. When it comes to Maldonado's reputation, Maldonado gained a reputation over his career as somewhat wild, accident-prone and unpredictable on the circuit. He was nicknamed "Crashtor" and a website called Has Maldonado Crashed Today? was created to track his many mishaps. Out of 96 grands prix, there were 29 retirements, and he incurred 39 penalties in his colourful F1 career, that's one every 2.4 races and 12 were for causing a collision.

2014/15/16/17 Formula 1 Rules vs. 2013 Formula 1 Rules

The 2014 season brings with it the biggest revisions to the Formula One technical regulations I can remember. Here is a short list of most important changes, and how 2014 rules compare with rules in action during 2013 Formula 1 season. The new rules have presented a huge challenge for the teams and engine manufacturers. Almost every single part of the car is a new design, from the front wing right back to the diffuser. It's been a massive job to accommodate all the changes of the power unit, especially new cooling requirements of the power unit, and what is the best way to optimize it in the chassis. So, let's se it.


You may copy and use any of the content of this site provided you make a clear link on your web site or printed matter to 'Formula 1 dictionary" as the source of that information. Also, you can not use my material and articles to make any money. I'm not making any money with this site, so why would you. I endeavour to ensure that the information I publish is free of other copyrights but it is essential that you check this for yourself before using. It is never my intention to deliberately infringe the copyright of any other person or organisation. If you have any concerns then please use the "Mail me" and I will investigate and take whatever action is necessary to rectify. As a volunteer and strictly non-profit making my only concern is to preserve information for future generations.


"The principle is the simple, one man is Champion, the others aren’t" — Niki Lauda

Books to read

When we talk about legends in F1, Sir Frank Williams is one of the few to earn the status outside of the cockpit. Founder and former team principal of Williams Racing passed away peacefully this morning surrounded by his family. 
A huge loss for our sport and Williams team. He will be deeply, deeply missed. His incredible achievements and personality will be etched on our sport forever. Under his leadership, Williams won the Formula One drivers' title seven times and the constructors' championship on nine occasions.
God's Speed Sir Frank Williams and thanks for so much.
My thoughts go out to his family at this difficult time.

Questions of race have made me tired since I understand what police brutality was, especially in America. I feel that what happened in the US was just a spark, that sparked everywhere ... I do think George Floyd's death sparked it across the world and I think it's amazing. Black Lives Matter is an activist movement which began as a hashtag #BlackLivesMatter after George Zimmerman was acquitted in the shooting of Trayvon Martin, an unarmed African-American teenager killed in Florida in July 2013.
Black Lives Matter is an inarguable demand for justice, equality, and reform regardless of race, skin color, or religion.

Some useful links:

- f1technical.net, a great site with a lot of technical information’s and explanations. Site is updated daily with news from F1 word.

 - autosport.com, This site is a legend. A bible for racing lovers. News from all around the word. Unfortunately, to get access to all news, interviews and to open the site completely you should be subscribed to Autosport magazine. Anyway, great read.

- JA.F1 site (or blog) ovned by ITV Sport’s lead commentator on Formula 1 James Allen

- joesaward is the Joe Saward official blog about Formula 1 world. Joe is an journalist, who write primarily about politics in and around motorsport, specifically on the FIA Formula 1 World Championship

 - planetf1, another site with many different articles, news and statistics. Biased toward British teams, but anyway good read.

 - gurneyflap.com, Great history site. You can learn a lot from this site. Pictures, cars and many many more. Great.

4ormula1 is a database of Formula 1 history and statistics of drivers, teams, grand prix, and all results since 1950.

Enjoy range of Podcasts and Articles on Motorsport. Every week a Formula one chat on Missed Apex F1 Podcast with F1 journalist Joe Saward and tech Analyst Matthew Somerfield as guests. Also the exciting all electric racing series formula E on eRadio Show and Bike Show Lean Angle Podcast.

-Racecar Engineering, an online magazine with a lot to learn from, a lot of technical information’s and explanations

 - fia.com, La Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile, representing the interests of motoring organisations and motor car users. Head organisation and ruler in auto sport.

 - wikipedia.org, I don’t believe that I have to tell you anything about this site. It’s not about Formula 1 technology, but you can learn a lot about that too.

Fuselage Cover Case Housing Frame for GoPro Hero 4 Silver Editio

 - carbibles.com, a great site for normal car users. Here you can find explanations of almost everything about your car and how it works. Technical reviews and explanations of some in-car gadgets.

- Daretobedifferent.org Susie Wolff and UK governing body of UK motorsport have joined forces to launch Dare To Be Different, a high-profile new initiative which is about increasing female participation, not just on the track but in all aspects of the sport.